Planting, maintenance, pest and disease control and shaping of ornamental trees in parks, boulevards and highways Planting, care, pest and disease control and shaping of ornamental trees in parks, boulevards and highways


Based on many years of research in the field of landscaping, a scheme of planting seedlings in ornamental trees is recommended. In cities and highways, large-sized seedlings are used for greening. 10 times the body diameter of the root soil (comi) is taken, which is usually 4 meters high and 5-10 cm in diameter. There are different containers for transporting seedlings with root soil. The pit for planting large seedlings is prepared in advance.

Landscape tree seedlings are planted in late fall or early spring after leaf fall. To speed up the work in the spring, the preparation of planting areas and the digging of pits are done in the fall. The pits for planting are dug by hand or by machine. The size of the pits should be such that the root branches should fit comfortably (from 50×50×50 cm to 70×70×70 cm). Seedlings should be two-three years old and standard. They must be well developed and not mechanically damaged. Before planting, the affected roots are cut off, and then the root part is dipped in a thick mass consisting of a mixture of clay and manure.

Nutrition. 6-8 days before planting, 10 kg of rotted manure or 300 g of superphosphate, 60 g of potassium salt and 60 g of ammonium sulfate are placed in the pits. Half of this amount is mixed into the bottom of the pit, and the other half is mixed with humus from above and put into the pit with it. After planting, circular ditches are made around it (1.0-1.2 m in diameter) and well watered. If the root canal is opened, it is covered with soil. Withered seedlings are replaced by new ones in autumn or spring of the following year.

One of the ways to increase resistance to smoke and gas in green trees is to give them mineral fertilizers during maintenance. In irrigated lands, 90-120 kg of nitrogen and phosphorus (270-360 kg of ammonium nitrate or 45-60 kg of ammonium sulfate and 450-660 kg of ordinary granular superphosphate) are given under the seedlings.

150 kg/ha of nitrogen (450 kg of ammonium nitrate or 750 kg of ammonium sulfate) and 120 kg/ha of phosphorus are applied to irrigated lands (600 kg/ha of superphosphate). In non-irrigated areas, 60-90 kg/ha of nitrogen (180-270 kg of ammonium nitrate or 300-450 kg/ha of ammonium sulfate), 60 kg/ha of phosphorus (335 simple superphosphate) and 30 kg/ha of potassium (75 kg/ha of potassium salt ) is given.

Irrigated land has its own characteristics of applying mineral fertilizers. Fertilizing them is related to watering the trees. Therefore, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are given three times - in April, May and June.

50% nitrogen and phosphorus are applied in April, and the rest in May and June - before the second irrigation. 50% of potassium salts are applied as summer feeding. Fertilizers are given three years in a row. Their impact will be visible in the next 3-4 years.

It is not advisable to fertilize the entire area of young crops in orchards, because young seedlings use nutrients from the area where the root network is spread. Therefore, it is necessary to apply fertilizer to the limited area, that is, around the seedlings, with a diameter of 1-1.5 m. Fertilizers should be given in a highly agrotechnical background, especially during timely watering, soil softening and weed control

For good growth and development of landscape tree saplings, during the growing season, it is necessary to carry out soil cultivation, watering, fertilizing, shaping the branches of trees, removing foreign plants, and fighting against pests and diseases in a timely manner.

In green gardens, the soil should be kept soft and clean, and there should be no weeds. For this purpose, the soil between the rows and between the rows is softened, and the seedlings should be watered in the regions where the amount of annual rainfall is less than 800-850 mm. In the first years, water is given 6-8 times in the amount of 600-700 m3/ha, in the following years it is irrigated 4-5 times in the amount of 900-1000 m3/ha. Irrigation is stopped in the second half of August so that the branches are fully woody.

Care work in non-irrigated areas should be focused on maintaining moisture in the soil. In the spring, the land is plowed (between the rows and within the rows), nitrogen fertilizers are added, then it is cultivated 1-2 times, the soil is plowed in the fall to collect moisture, and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are given.

Newly planted tree seedlings should be watered in time until they take root.

Key pest and disease control measures. The health status of several tree species, including broadleaf and deciduous shrubs, in the reforested areas remains unsatisfactory.

Green areas are mainly affected by leaf-eating, sucking, body pests and diseases such as rust, brown spotting, powdery mildew, parsy, and cytosporosis fungal diseases.

In the year of mass reproduction, pests and diseases not only cause damage to plants, but also cause their death.

Microbiological control methods are also recommended as an alternative to chemical control among many recommended methods. Using microorganisms and biopreparations prepared from them against diseases and pests of the human body, warm-blooded creatures, and pollinating insects are generally considered to be environmentally friendly methods.

Biological control measures against the main pests and diseases spread in urban areas: it is recommended to treat leaf-eating pests with biological preparations Prestige at the consumption rate of 4-6 liters per hectare, Prestige plus or Lepidoticide at the consumption rate of 1-1.5 liters per hectare for sucking pests 2-3 times during the season will be done.

It is recommended to apply Sporangin at the rate of 4-6 liters per hectare or Phytolavin at the rate of 1-2 liters per hectare 2-3 times per season for rust, brown spotting, powdery mildew, parsha, cytosporosis.

Shrub types. Tree pruning is done for 3 different purposes: shaping, sanitation and rejuvenation.

Pruning for shaping is carried out for the following purposes:

Making the shape and appearance of the tree scenic;

During the growth of trees: in case of interference with electric or telephone wires; if there is too much shadow on the windows of buildings; valuable ornamental trees and shrubs block light for growth; it is done if the flower beds and lawn areas are left in dark shade.

Sanitary cleaning is carried out for the following purposes:

Removal of diseased, withered, prematurely broken, drooping and unsightly branches;

Cutting the crooked and tangled branches;

Getting rid of small bugs on the tree stump;

Thinning branches in order to evenly distribute light and wind between tree branches.

Pruning for rejuvenation is carried out for the following purposes:

When the tree reaches the level of physiological aging, that is, when it stops annual growth;

When the top of the tree and the tips of some branches begin to dry;

When the tree loses its scenic appearance;

Tree branches that are at risk of falling on children's playgrounds, sidewalks, exits and roofs of houses and service organizations are eliminated.

The antlers are formed for 5-6 years, pruning is carried out for sanitary purposes. The height of the stem is 70-80 cm, and in strong growing varieties it is 110-120 cm. Weak branches are removed. Only well-developed ones are left, they should be located on all sides of the body and should not destroy each other when they grow. In these branches, semi-skeletal and growing branches are formed, in which the fruit appears.

As the trees get older, in the period of senescence, and when the branches become cold or dry, they are cut shorter, then the branches are straightened, and then they do the usual pruning. Drying branches are the first priority in the maintenance of the antlers.

Branches growing inwards, touching each other, weak ones are cut. Small branches growing from the root neck are cut. The branches are cut in the spring, before the movement of sap begins. Because if it is delayed a little, juices will flow from the cut place.

If thick branches are to be cut, oil paint is applied to the cut, otherwise pests and disease will appear in the cut and cause the branch to rot.

When shaping the branches and cutting the excess branches of densely planted species, the recommendations accepted in fruit growing are followed. To protect the tree trunk and skeletal branches from sunlight, a mixture of slaked lime, clay and manure is applied to them in autumn.

Partially cutting the branches of trees to shape them will strengthen the growing branches and also have a positive effect on flowering. In this case, undeveloped branches of the tree are selected for cutting. After the age of the tree grows, old branches are cut and conditions are created for the growth of young branches. In this case, the old branch is cut, leaving half a meter from the main stem, that is, conditions are created for the development of new branches after the cut.

Tree shaping is done in autumn and winter. Oil paint is applied to prevent sap from the cut. New shoots begin to develop from the cut branch in early spring. Among them, the others are cut, leaving 2-3 well-developed branches.

In order to rejuvenate white mulberry, blackberry, white poplar, willow and similar trees, the old branches are shortened during the aging period. After carrying out these activities, it is good to treat the arable layer of the earth around the tree with compost, and in the spring, watering it with manure juice.

Cutting large branches

When shaping decorative trees in avenues and parks, it is important that their height and diameter are the same, and the ends of those with large branches are trimmed and equalized with other trees in the row.

Shaping landscape bushes should be done constantly. It is very difficult to organize bushes that have been neglected for several years and have not been shaped in time.

In some cases, small trees or bushes planted as a "green wall" have grown so irregularly that they cannot be shaped, they are cut from the base, that is, the "green wall" is temporarily eliminated.

After 2-3 years, when they start to give new branches, shaping is continued again, after 5 years the "wall" is restored. It is advisable to do these things in early spring, that is, before the movement of aphids begins in the plant. Covered trees and shrubs are fed with fertilizer and watered at the right time.

Pruning seedlings

In some cases, bushes are bushed bare, leaving two large branches, and the ends of the remaining branches are pinched off in order to create conditions for new shoots. To give the bush a larger volume, the branches to be left can be left from 2 sides of the body.

The above-mentioned measures are not recommended for pine trees, because they stop producing new branches by the fourth year, that is, the branches are not renewed. Usually, pine trees with half-dried branches are left in this state or are cut down and replaced with new ones. The most convenient tool for pruning trees is a lopper. Larger branches can be cut with large shears or a chainsaw.

"Green walls" that provide a beautiful view are formed over the years. To carry out such activities, it is necessary to choose bush seedlings with a well-developed root network, lower height and attractiveness.

Reshaping the overgrown "green wall" by cutting it

In the process of rejuvenating landscape bushes, its weak lower branches are cut. In this way, more light and heat will reach the uncut branches of the bushes, and as a result of the liquid absorbed from the roots, more will go to the younger branches, and the younger branches that will not be cut will grow and develop better.

Plants that produce flowers from the tips of their branches (Japanese quince, almond, forsythia, jasmine, spirea, nasturtium, Indian nasturin, Syrian rose (hibiscus, etc.)) are shaped in the summer months, that is, after the flowering process is over. When shaping them, up to a third of the stem is cut off.

Shrubs are often pruned more often than large tree saplings due to their rapid growth. Willow, white poplar, small-leaved linden, larch, Pennsylvanian sycamore, field maple, common false chestnut, common oak will grow and develop well if they are pruned from large trees. Dry, crooked, interfering branches of deciduous trees such as Crimean pine, eldar pine, black pine, virgin fir, western camellia, eastern biota (platycladus), and ficus are cut, which may dry out if they are overgrown.

Growth scheme of a bush planted as a "green wall" from planting to shaping

The optimal period for pruning trees is February-March before the start of sap movement (before the plant liquid starts to move) or October-November after the sap movement stops (before winter hibernation). Care of hidden plants includes loosening the soil around the plant, feeding with organic and mineral fertilizers, and watering. When taking care of the trunk of the tree, the ulcerous spots that have started to rot are thoroughly cleaned, treated with a special solution (sadovy var) that is applied when the branches of the tree are cut, and filled with oil paint.

Cross-sectional diagram of variously shaped "green walls"

Stamping of trees that have begun to dry out is carried out in the summer months, that is, in the period when drying is evident. After cutting dead trees, the stumps are removed separately. In some cases, this is done by burning the remaining stumps from the tree. After both cases, the place of the tank is filled with soil and leveled.