Preparing the soil for planting

Trees and shrubs form a strong skeletal root network in the early stages of growth, and they grow somewhat deeper. In the later period of development, they form their lateral roots. As the tree grows older, the roots spread into the soil layers and become larger. When the soil is deeply tilled, good conditions are created for the roots to grow into deep layers. Therefore, it is recommended to till the soil deep (60 cm) before planting. Before processing, the field is cleared of perennial weeds, stones, root residues, etc. Tree seedlings are planted in specially prepared pits. The width of the pit should be 90-100 cm, and the depth should be 70 cm, which ensures an even location of the seedling roots. 1.5-2.0 m circumference of saplings planted on the edge of paved roads must be open.

If the soil is strongly compacted, it is necessary to soften the bottom and walls of the pits by 15-20 cm. The soil around the stem is softened to a depth of 5-7 cm so that the roots are not damaged.

In the practice of planting a garden, the size of the pits for planting a standard seedling is as follows:

a) diameter 1 m, depth 0.80 m for 8-10-year-old trees;

b) diameter 0.70 m, depth 0.70 m for 3-5-year-old single bushes;

c) When planting in groups, the total pit depth is 0.80 m for trees, 0.70 m for bushes;

g) The size of the trench for one- and two-row green walls with bushes is 0.6×0.6 m. For each subsequent row, the width of the trench increases by 0.1 m, the depth does not change. The row spacing is 0.2 m, the plant spacing (within a row) is 0.25-0.40 m when planted in one row, 0.40-0.50 m in two rows, 0.50-0.80 m in three rows, etc. should organize. Seedlings should be planted in a checkerboard pattern;

d) When planting in a strip without shaping the bushes: for a single-row strip, plant 0.7×0.7 m, add 0.5 m in width to each subsequent row, the depth does not change, the distance between the rows is 0.5 m, the distance between the rows is It is 1.0 m when planted in rows, 1.2 m in two rows, 1.5 m in three rows, etc.

When planting larger trees and shrubs, the size of the pit will depend on the size of the seedlings and local soil conditions. In deeply tilled soils, the holes prepared for planting may not be very deep, but they should fit comfortably in the holes so that the roots are not bent or compressed during the planting season. Pits for autumn planting are prepared 15 days before planting, and then buried with a pre-prepared fertile soil mixture. When planting in spring, pits are usually prepared in autumn and left open until spring. Preparing the pits a few days before planting is done taking into account the subsidence of the soil and improving the air exchange in the soil. Drainage is done with 15-20 cm deep gravel or crushed stone so that moisture does not get trapped. If the seedlings have to be planted in the spring, the pits should be prepared at least five days before planting.

When digging pits and trenches, the highly fertile part of the soil is collected on one side and then used for burying the base of seedlings. Surplus infertile soil is used for leveling the area. When planting seedlings in soils with low nutrient content, it is recommended to bury them with a mixture of humus. When the bottom of the seedlings is filled with soil, its subsequent subsidence should be taken into account, so the buried soil should be compacted 10 cm above the natural ground level.

When fertilizing young trees, applying the fertilizer in deeper layers works best. In addition, it is possible to mix rotted manure or biohumus in the pits during planting. When using biohumus, it softens heavy soils, enriches the soil with nutrients, and improves its moisture retention properties. In sandy and loamy soils, it is advisable to put clay soil at the bottom of the pit, because such soils transfer moisture from themselves to deep layers. Moisture is retained longer when clay soil is placed. For clay soils, on the contrary, sandy and loamy soils are mixed.

Schemes of planting seedlings

• Depending on the biological characteristics of seedlings, planting schemes are determined differently:

- tall and branching types - 8x8 or 10x10 m;

- medium branching species - 5x4 or 5x6 m;

- upright, non-branching types - 3x2 or 3x4 m;

Tall and branching species

Tall, long-lived and branching tree species (200-300 years) are planted in an 8x8, 8x10 or 10x10 m scheme.

These include trees such as maple, oak, walnut, apricot, ginkgo biloba, pecan.

Note: In this case, you can plant shrubs or fruit trees to fill the gap

Medium branching tree species

Medium-sized and moderately branching tree species (up to 100-150 years) are planted in a 5x4, 5x5 or 5x6 m scheme.

These include conifer species (pine), larch, cypress, maple, acacia, linden, chestnut, gladichia, mulberry and almond trees.

Note: In this case, low trees and shrubs can be planted to fill the gap

Trees that grow upright and do not branch excessively

Trees that are lower in height, grow upright, and whose branches do not branch around are planted in a 3x2, 3x3 or 3x4 m scheme.

These include some upright trees, poplar, catalpa, mojjevelnik, as well as some types of shrubs, namatak, saxovul, siren, jimilost, and fruit trees.